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Because of its three-dimensional nature and the fact it can be displayed in many more different types of location than (say) painting, there are a number of important concepts, and theoretical issues which govern the design and production of sculpture. The two principal elements of sculpture are mass and space.

Nanni di Banco (1375-1421) Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) Donatello (1386-1466) Luca Della Robbia (1400-1482) Antonio Rossellino (1427-1479) Antonio Pollaiuolo (1432-98) Andrea Della Robbia (1435-1525) Niccolo Dell'Arca (1435-94) Andrea del Verrocchio (1435-1488) Guido Mazzoni (1450-1518) Michelangelo (1475-1564) Alonso Berruguete (c.1486-1561) Jacopo Sansovino (1486-1570) Baccio Bandinelli (1493-1560) Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1571) Francesco Primaticcio (1504-1570) Juan de Juni (1507-1577) Germain Pilon (1529-1590) Giambologna (1529-1608) Jean Goujon (Active 1540-1563) Barthelemy Prieur (1536-1611) Adriaen de Vries (1560-1626) Stefano Maderno (1576-1636) Juan Martines Montanes (1568-1649) Francois Duquesnoy (1597-1643) Bernini (1598-1680) Alessandro Algardi (1598-1654) Alonso Cano (1601-67) Pierre Puget (1622-94) Francois Girardon (1628-1715) Antoine Coysevox (1640-1720) Grinling Gibbons (1648-1721) Balthasar Permoser (1651-1732) Andreas Schluter (1664-1714) Guillaume Coustou (1677-1746) Louis-Francois Roubiliac (1695-1762) Jean-Baptiste Pigalle (1714-1785) Etienne Falconet (1716-1791) Franz Xaver Messerschmidt (1736-1783) Joseph Nollekens (1737-1823) Clodion (1738-1814) Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828) John Flaxman (1755-1826) Antonio Canova (1757-1822) Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770–1844) Francois Rude (1784-1855) Auguste Preault (1809-1879) Alfred Stevens (1817-75) George Frederick Watts (1817-1904) Pierre-Louis Rouillard (1820-81) Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux (1827-1875) Frederic Leighton (1830-1896) Jean Falguiere (1831-1900) Auguste Bartholdi 1834-1904 Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) Marius Mercier (1845-1916) Camille Claudel (1864-1943) Daniel Chester French (1850-1931)Three-dimensional art begins with prehistoric sculpture.

Previously, the history of art understood only two basic sculptural forms: sculpture in the round (also called free-standing sculpture) and reliefs (including bas-relief, haut-relief, and sunken-relief).

Nowadays, new forms of light-related sculpture (eg.

Space is the air around the solid sculpture, and reacts with the latter in several ways: first, it defines the edges of the sculpture; second, it can be enclosed by part of the sculpture, forming hollows or areas of emptiness; third, it can link separate parts of the sculpture which thus relate to one another across space.

Works of sculpture can be assessed and differentiated according to their treatment of these two elements.

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