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Chertkov, reported to Grigory Potemkin on 23 February 1776 that at this location existed the ruins of ancient domakha (homes), and in 1788 he planned the new town of Pavlovsk.) of Kalmius County was founded on the site.
For the Russian authorities the city was named after the Russian Empress Maria Feodorovna; but the city was named de facto after the Greek settlement of Mariampol, a suburb of Bakhchisaray.
Mariupol was founded on the site of a former Cossack encampment named Kalmius and granted city rights in 1778.
It has been a centre for the grain trade, metallurgy, and heavy engineering, including the Illich Steel & Iron Works and Azovstal.
After construction of the railway line from Yuzovka in 1882, much of the wheat grown in the Yekaterinoslav Governorate and coal from the Donets Basin were exported via the port of Mariupol (the second largest after Odessa in the South Russian Empire), which served as a key funding source for opening a hospital, public library, electric power station and urban water supply system.
Mariupol remained a local trading centre until 1898, when the Belgian subsidiary SA Providence Russe opened a steelworks in Sartana near Mariupol (now the Ilyich Steel & Iron Works).
although this area had been part of its migratory territory.
After 1736, the Zaporozhian and the Don Cossacks (whose capital was at nearby Novoazovsk) came into conflict over the area, resulting in Tsarina Elizabeth issuing a decree in 1746 marking the Kalmius River as the divide between the two Cossack hosts.
During the late Middle Ages through the early modern period, here taken from the 12th through the 16th century, Mariupol lay within a broader region that was largely devastated and depopulated by the intense conflict among the surrounding peoples, including the Crimean Tatars, the Nogai Horde, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and Muscovy.
Below the Dnieper Rapids were the Zaporozhian Cossacks, composed of freebooters organized into small, loosely-knit, and highly mobile groups that practised both pastoral and nomadic living.
The Cossacks would regularly penetrate the steppe for fishing and hunting, as well as for migratory farming and herding of livestock.
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